乡愁悠悠在,光中余心中!(附中英文作品)
2017年12月15日 来源: 作者: 浏览次数:595

著名诗人、中国文学家余光中先生于昨天(14日)上午10点04分在高雄医院过世,享年90岁。今天奇速君和大家分享余光中先生代表作《乡愁》的英译版以及其他作品,以此悼念这位伟大的文学家和翻译家。




乡愁雷佳 - 乡愁


小时候,

乡愁是一枚小小的邮票,

我在这头,母亲在那头;


长大后,

乡愁是一张窄窄的船票,

我在这头,新娘在那头;


后来啊!

乡愁是一方矮矮的坟墓,

我在外头,母亲在里头;


而现在,

乡愁是一湾浅浅的海峡,

我在这头,大陆在那头



——余光中《乡愁》


【背景解读】


作者在谈及本诗时说: 小时候小寄宿学校,要与妈妈写信;婚后赴美读书,坐轮船返台;后来母亲去世,永失母爱;

 

前三段思念的都是女性,到最后一句,我想到大陆这个“大母亲”,于是意境和思路便豁然开朗。


《乡愁》HomeSick


When I was a child,my homesickness was a small stamp,Linking Mum at the other end and me this.

小时候,乡愁是一枚小小的邮票,我在这头,母亲在那头。

When I grown up, I remained homesick,but it became a ticket by which I sailed to and from my bride at the other end.

长大后,乡愁是一张窄窄的船票 ,我在这头,新娘在那头。

Then homesickness took the shape of a grave,Mum inside of it and me outside.

后来呀,乡愁是一方矮矮的坟墓,我在外头,母亲在里头。

Now I’m still homesick,but it is a narrow strait Separating me on this side and the mainland on the other.

而现在,乡愁是一弯浅浅的海峡,我在这头,大陆在那头。


写这首诗只用了20分钟

但感情却酝酿了整整20年

二十载没有机会返回大陆的余光中思乡情切

在台北写下了《乡愁》


时年82岁的余光中朗诵《乡愁》


40多年来

这首诗感动了无数海内外华人

并被广为收录在华人世界教科书中


1928年,余光中出生在南京。因为母亲原籍为江苏,所以他以“江南人”自称。



抗战时期在四川读中学,所以余光中对四川的感情很深,自认为是蜀人。他的生日正好是重阳节,因此也常常称呼自己为“茱萸的孩子”。


1940年进入南京青年中学,后考取北京大学和金陵大学(南京大学的前身),选择了金陵大学外文系。1949年转入厦门大学外语系,随后移居香港。


1950年迁至台湾,同年进入台湾大学外文系。1953年,赴美进修,获爱荷华大学艺术硕士学位。


毕业后,曾在台湾东吴大学、台湾师范大学、台湾大学、台湾政治大学、香港中文大学等多所高校任教。


余光中夫妇


从1985年开始,就一直担任台湾中山大学教授及讲座教授,还曾兼任文学院院长及外文研究所所长。


余光中还是厦门大学、江南大学、浙江大学等大陆高校的客座教授。他被北京大学聘为“驻校诗人”,也是北京师范大学(珠海分校)文学院荣誉院长。



余光中生前专注于诗歌、散文的创作,从事评论和翻译工作。他把自己的写作称为“四度空间”。



生前出版了40多本文学作品,包括翻译集13本、诗集21本、散文集11本和评论集5本。


代表作有《白玉苦瓜》(诗集)、《记忆像铁轨一样长》(散文集)及《分水岭上:余光中评论文集》(评论集)等。


最被我们熟知的是《乡愁》。当时,已经离开大陆20多年的余光中,思乡情切,在台北厦门街的旧居内创造了这首诗歌。


作为一个离开大陆三十多年的当代诗人,这首《乡愁》烙上深刻的时代印记。


寄情诗歌,余光中表达了万千海外游子的绵长乡关之思。这首诗歌传颂几十年,说出了几代人对大陆的思念,对统一的期盼。


余光中不仅自己创作诗歌,还是学贯中西的学者,也曾翻译过英美文学大家的作品。



 当今文青常说的 “心有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇” ,就是出自他的译笔。


这句的原文为“In me the tiger sniffs the rose”,是英国诗人西格里夫·萨松代表作《于我,过去,现在以及未来 》中的经典诗句。


而余光中以四字格的方式译成中文,突出人性中的阳刚与阴柔的两面,即:老虎也会有细嗅蔷薇的时候,忙碌而远大的雄心也会被温柔和美丽折服,安然感受美好。


对于翻译,他有这样的感悟——



他也说过这样的金句——



翻译如婚姻,是一种两相妥协的艺术。如果说,原作者是神灵,则译者就是巫师,任务是把神的话传给人。

——余光中,2002



这句对于翻译的经典阐释,也体现在他翻译美国女诗人 Emily Dickinson 的 I Died for Beauty《殉美》一诗中。



I Died for Beauty

Emily Dickinson


I died for Beauty,but was scarce

Adjusted in the Tomb,

When One who died for Truth,was lain

In an adjoining Room.

He questioned softly why I failed?

"For Beauty," I replied.

"And I for Truth,-the Two are One;

We Brethren are," he said.

And so,as Kinsmen met a Night,

We talked between the Rooms,

Until the Moss had reached our lips,

And covered up our names.



《殉美》

余光中 译


我为美死去,但是还不曾。

安息在我的墓里,

又有个为真理而死去的人

来躺在我的隔壁。


他悄悄地问我为何以身殉?

为了美,我说。

而我为真理,两者不分家;

我们是兄弟两个。


于是像亲戚在夜间相遇,

我们便隔墙谈天,

直到青苔爬到了唇际,

将我们的名字遮掩。


此外,余光中一直致力于提倡中文的纯洁,反对公式化的“翻译体”,反对欧化,讲求中文的意象美。


他认为文学翻译是一门艺术。而为艺术,则必有其创造性。翻译与创作有相通之处,两者都是要将一种经验转换成文字。


不同的是,作家是将自己的经验翻译成文字,一切全在自己掌握之中,是一种“不拘的翻译”、“自我的翻译”。“翻译也是一种创作,至少是一种‘有限的创作”


余光中重回南京母校


这种思想就体现在余光中翻译雪莱的诗歌中。


England in 1819

Percy Bysshe Shelley


An old, mad, blind, despised, and dying king-
Princes, the dregs of their dull race, who flow 
Through public scorn-mud from a muddy spring; 
Rulers, who neither see, nor feel, nor know, 
But leech-like to their fainting country cling, 
Till they drop, blind in blood, without a blow; 
A people starved and stabbed in the untilled field-
An army, which liberticide and prey 
Makes as a two-edged sword to all who wield-
Golden and sanguine laws Which tempt and slay-
Religion Christless, Godless-a book sealed; 
A Senate-Time’s worst statute unrepealed-
Are graves, from which a glorious Phantom may 
Burst, illumine our tempestuous day. 


英伦:一八一九年

余光中


又狂又盲,众所鄙视的垂死老王—— 
王子王孙,愚蠢世系的剩渣残滓, 
在国人腾笑下流过——污源的浊浆; 

当朝当政,都无视,无情,更无知, 
像水蛭一般吸牢在衰世的身上, 
终会矇矇然带血落下,无须鞭笞;

 
百姓在荒地废田上被饿死,杀死—— 
摧残自由,且强掳横掠的军队 
已沦为一把双刃剑,任挥者是谁; 
法律则拜金而嗜血,诱民以死罪; 
宗教无基督也无神——闭上了圣经; 


更有上议院——不废千古的恶律—— 
从这些墓里,终会有光辉的巨灵 
一跃而出,来照明这满天风雨。


余光中的译文中自带中文流畅的韵律美,脱离了英文的格律束缚。既有西文的骨感,又有汉语之精髓;既遵循原文,又有所创作,令人读来叹服。


最后奇速君分享一篇来自可可英语的BBC英语六分钟|乡愁,撩动你的内心,更深层次理解《乡愁》!



This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English dot com.

这里是bbclearningenglish. com英语六分钟节目。


Jennifer: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Jennifer and I'm joined by Finn.

大家好,欢迎来到BBC英语六分钟。我是詹尼弗,和我一起的是费恩。


Finn: Hello Jen. In this programme, we're going to talk about homesickness. That's the feeling that you get when you're away from home and miss it—you feel sad because you would like to be there. Do you ever get homesick, Jen?

你好,詹尼。今天我们要谈论的是乡愁。当你远离家乡的时候,你就会有这种感觉,你会思念家乡——感觉忧伤,因为那是你喜欢的地方。你想过家吗,詹尼?


Jennifer: Oh yes. I live in London now, but I was born in the north-east of England, which is a three-hour train journey away. Sometimes I wish I could go back home and see my family. How about you?

想过啊。我现在住伦敦,但是我出生在英格兰东北部,从这里到那里需要坐3小时的火车。有时候我就很想回家见见家人。你呢?


Finn: I've felt homesick when I've spent time in other countries. It's actually very common and a lot of people suffer from it.

当我在其他国家的时候我就会想家。这是常见的,并且很多人都这样。


Jennifer: We'll talk soon about some tips that you can use to combat, or overcome, homesickness, but first, a quiz question.

我们稍后就给大家介绍一些用来“打击”或者说克服乡愁的小贴士,但我先来问个问题。


Finn: Ok, I'm ready.

好的,我准备好了。


Jennifer: What percentage of students experience homesickness in their early days at university? a) 50% b) 60% or c) 70%?

在上刚上大学的时候,有多少人有过想家的经历呢?a)50%b) 60%c) 70%?


Finn: I'm going to say b) 60%.

我选择b)60%。


Jennifer: We'll find out if you're right at the end of the programme. So, if you are homesick, how does it feel?

在节目的最后,我们再看你的答案是否正确。当你想家的时候,那是一种什么样的感觉?


Finn: Well, I think you can often feel very lonely, especially if you've moved to a foreign country where the language is different to yours. You can feel quite isolated—feeling that you're on your own with no one to help.

嗯,我觉得你会经常感到非常孤独,尤其是当你所去的国家所使用的语言和你的母语不同的时候。你会感到自己被孤立了——觉得你只能靠自己,没有人来帮助你。


Jennifer: That's true. It's often very difficult when you don't know many people. It's stressful. It can be hard to make friends, and you will often think about your friends and family back at home.

是这样的。当你认识的人不多时,你会觉得很困难。非常焦虑。很难交到朋友,而且会经常让你想起国内的朋友和亲人。


Finn: You could say that you pine for your home. That means that you really want to go back and see some familiar faces, or people you know.

你非常想家。这也就是说你真的想要回国看看那些熟悉的面孔,见见你认识的人。


Jennifer: I miss my friends and family lots. But when I'm feeling homesick, I also miss places, sounds and smells!

我非常想念我的朋友和家人们。当我想家的时候,我也会想念那些熟悉的地方、声音和好吃的!


Finn: You might see a picture of your hometown, which can make you feel a bit sad, because you're not there.

你也许会看看家乡的照片,不过这会让你感到有点伤悲,因为你现在不在那里。


Jennifer: Food is something else that I long for—I want it very much - when I'm away from home. There are lots of regional foods which you can't get in London, but the thing I miss the most is my mum's home cooking. If I smell something that reminds me of home, I feel extremely homesick!

我还非常渴望吃到家乡的食物——当我离开家的时候,我就非常想吃家乡的食物。在伦敦,很多地方美食你都吃不到,但是我最想吃的是妈妈做的家常饭。如果某些东西让我想起家的味道,我就会非常想家!


Finn: You're starting to make me feel homesick now! Nowadays lots of people live, work or study away from home. People travel all over the world, and homesickness is a growing problem.

你现在就已经开始让我想家了!现在,很多人都在远离家乡的地方生活、工作、学习。人们游走在世界各地,乡愁成了日益严重的问题。


Jennifer: Lots of people will experience mild homesickness—so they feel a little sad, but they can deal with it. Other people have more extreme homesickness.

很多人都会经历淡淡的思乡之情——虽然他们会有点难过,但是他们能调整好自己的情绪。但有些人会有很严重的思乡之情。


Finn: They might experience panic attacks or nightmares…

他们可能会感到恐慌或做噩梦。


Jennifer: and some people withdraw from society altogether. That means they don't go out or interact with anyone.

而一些人则退出社会。意思就是他们不出门也不同任何人交往。


Finn: Some people think that if you feel that homesick, you should just go home! But often it's not as easy as that, especially if you are studying or working somewhere.

有人觉得如果你那么想家,你就应该直接回家!但有时说起来容易做起来难,尤其是你正在外地学习或工作的时候。


Jennifer: There are ways to make it better, though. Modern technology has helped a lot of people to stay in touch with their families by using video-calling software, such as Skype or FaceTime.

不过,有两种方法可以缓解思乡之情。现代技术帮助很多人通过视频电话软件如Skype或 FaceTime和家人保持联系。


Finn: That's a good idea, because actually seeing someone talk to you is much better than just hearing them on the phone. Social media also helps people to communicate with the people they left behind.

这真是个好方法,毕竟看着家人和你说话比在电话里听他们说话好多了。社会媒体同样也可以帮助人们与家人保持联系。


Jennifer: Another good idea is to meet up with expat communities. That way, you can make new friends who speak your language—that can take the pressure off a little bit.

另一个方法就是加入到由自己祖国的人组成的社区。这样你可以和你说一样母语的人交朋友——这样会稍微减少思乡之情。


Finn: It can… But it's also good to mix with locals in a new town or city. In my opinion, that's the best way to stop feeling so isolated when you're in a different place.

这样确实可以——但是在一个新城市,你能融入当地人的生活也是很好的。在我看来,这是不会让你在陌生的地方觉得孤立的最好方法。


Jennifer: If you're really struggling or having a hard time, you could try talking to a doctor or professional to get some advice, or even a good friend. Sometimes, even acknowledging, or realising, that you're homesick can be the first step to feeling better.

如果你内心真的很挣扎或者很煎熬,你可以咨询医生或专业人士来得到一些建议,或者向你的好朋友倾诉。有时候,你甚至意识到想家是让你慢慢转好的第一步。


Finn: Well, I hope that our listeners aren't suffering from homesickness—but we need to find out the answer to the quiz question that Jennifer set earlier.

希望我们的听众没有被我们说的想家了——但我们要公布一开始詹尼弗所问问题的答案了。


Jennifer: I asked what percentage of students typically suffer from homesickness when they start university. Was it: a) 50% b) 60% or c) 70%?

我问:在上刚上大学的时候,有多少人有过想家的经历呢?a)50%b)60%c)70%?


Finn: And I said b) 60%.

我选择的是b)60%。


Jennifer: And you were wrong, I'm afraid! It's seventy percent of all students who feel homesick when they begin university.

你没选对哦!70%的学生在一开始上大学的时候会想家。


Finn: So it's very common and completely normal to feel a little bit sad when you are in a new situation!

因此当你初到一个新环境的时候,觉得有些想家是非常常见且普遍的!


Jennifer: Now, Finn, we're almost out of time, so could you remind us of the words we've heard today?

费恩,快到结束的时间了,你能帮助大家回顾一下今天听到的单词吗?


Finn: OK. They were:
他们是:


homesickness
思乡之情

lonely
孤独的

isolated
孤立的

stressful
忧虑的,担忧的

to pine for something
非常想念一些东西

familiar faces
熟悉的面孔

panic attacks
感到恐慌的

to withdraw from something
从…退出

to stay in touch
保持联系

expat communities
来自同一国家的人们